rank these substances in order of increasing solubility in water.

Ever wondered why some substances dissolve easily in water while others don’t? Understanding the solubility of different substances in water is not only fascinating but also crucial in various fields, from chemistry to environmental science. In this article, I’ll guide you through the process of ranking substances in order of increasing solubility in water. Whether you’re a student, a scientist, or simply curious about the world around you, this knowledge will empower you to better understand the behavior of substances in aqueous solutions.

Factors affecting solubility in water


The temperature of a solution plays a significant role in determining the solubility of substances in water. As a general rule, solubility tends to increase with higher temperatures. This means that substances are more likely to dissolve in water at higher temperatures.

The reason behind this relationship lies in the motion of particles. When the temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the particles also increases. This increased energy allows the particles to overcome the attractive forces holding them together and interact more readily with the water molecules. As a result, the solubility of substances in water usually increases.


Unlike temperature, pressure has a minimal effect on the solubility of most solid and liquid solutes in water. The solubility of these substances is largely determined by their chemical properties and the nature of the solvent.

However, the solubility of gases is heavily influenced by pressure. According to Henry’s law, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid. This means that increasing the pressure of a gas above a liquid increases its solubility.


The polarity of both the solute and the solvent also plays a crucial role in determining their solubility in water. Generally, polar solutes are more likely to dissolve in polar solvents, like water, while nonpolar solutes tend to dissolve better in nonpolar solvents.

Water, being a polar molecule, has a strong affinity for other polar substances. The polarity arises due to the unequal distribution of electrons within the molecule, leading to a partial positive charge (δ+) on the hydrogen atoms and a partial negative charge (δ-) on the oxygen atom.

Rank These Substances in Order of Increasing Solubility in Water.

When it comes to the solubility of substances in water, it’s important to understand the order of increasing solubility. Here are some guidelines to help you rank substances in order of increasing solubility in water:

Group 1 Salts

Group 1 salts, which include substances like sodium, potassium, and ammonium salts, are generally highly soluble in water. These salts are composed of cations from Group 1 elements that readily interact with water molecules. As a result, they dissolve easily in water, making them highly soluble.

Group 2 Salts

Group 2 salts, such as calcium and magnesium salts, also exhibit good solubility in water. However, compared to Group 1 salts, they tend to be slightly less soluble. Despite this, they still dissolve well in water due to the ionic nature of these compounds.

Ammonium Salts

Ammonium salts consist of ammonium cations (NH4+) and various anions. The solubility of ammonium salts in water depends on the specific anion present. In general, ammonium salts with smaller anions tend to be more soluble. For example, ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) are highly soluble in water.

Sodium, Potassium, and Ammonium Salts

Sodium, potassium, and ammonium salts have already been mentioned individually, but it’s worth noting that they have similar solubility characteristics. All three of these salts exhibit high solubility in water due to the strong interactions between their cations and water molecules.

Nitrate Salts

Nitrate salts, such as sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and potassium nitrate (KNO3), have good solubility in water. Nitrate ions (NO3-) have a high charge-to-size ratio, which allows them to easily interact with water molecules and dissolve in water.

Chloride Salts

Chloride salts, including sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), are also highly soluble in water. The chloride ion (Cl-) has a strong attraction to water molecules, leading to the dissolution of these salts in water.

Sulfate Salts

Sulfate salts, like sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), typically have good solubility in water. However, the solubility of sulfate salts can vary depending on the specific compound and temperature conditions. In general, sulfates with larger cations tend to be less soluble.

Carbonate Salts

Carbonate salts, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3), have lower solubility in water compared to the salts mentioned earlier. Carbonate ions (CO3^2-) have a relatively large size and a higher charge density, making them less likely to dissolve in water.

By understanding these solubility guidelines for common substances, you can better rank them in order of increasing solubility in water.