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Amazon has a long and contentious history with unions and union drives. In 2021, Amazon faced a union drive in Bessemer, Alabama that was met with harsh resistance from the company. This paper will examine how the Amazon fought against the Alabama union drive and its impact. It will cover Amazon’s anti-union tactics, how the union drive was eventually defeated, and the implications and lessons learned from it.

Overview of Amazon’s Anti-union Stance

Amazon has developed a reputation over the last two decades for its strong anti-union stance, resisting attempts by its workers to unionise to gain collective bargaining rights and better working conditions. At its core, Amazon’s stance is rooted in the company’s belief that unions impede innovation and limit flexibility at the cost of limiting Amazon’s ability to grow. This has been demonstrated through their consistent efforts to stonewall unionisation, including intimidation tactics, economic pressure, and firing active employees trying to form a union.

In response, labour rights organisations have criticised Amazon’s anti-union record and pressured the company to recognize collective bargaining rights for their workers. To date Amazon remains one of few large technology companies that has no union presence in any of its US locations however there has been some success in gaining recognition such as winning informal recognition of unions in some departments and working with organisations like the Workers Rights Consortium on improving conditions for his suppliers around the world.

How Amazon Fought The Union Drive in Alabama

Amazon is well-known for its controversy involving unions. The company has faced negative press, public criticism and federal investigation regarding its long history of anti-union campaigns. From its earliest days, Amazon has opposed unionisation efforts and continues to be one of the most prominent anti-union companies in the United States.

Amazon has adopted a strategy to prevent organised labour on its premises or within affiliated companies’ supply chains by firing workers in response to union organisation or strike actions. Amazon has also used mandatory arbitration clauses in worker contracts, provided misinformation about collective bargaining rights, and engaged in campaigns of intimidation to prevent unionisation from taking root. Moreover, Amazon’s use of technology to directly track employee organising activities and engage in surveillance suggests that the company is dramatically ramping up its anti-union measures.

Despite significant pushback, labour organisations have continued organising around Amazon in recent years — particularly as Amazon employees face worsening working conditions with no recourse from government entities during the pandemic. By understanding Amazon’s historical opposition to unions, citizens can gain insight into the challenges facing organised labour today — and build momentum for meaningful change inside and outside Amazon facilities.

Amazon’s Anti-Union Tactics

Amazon has a long history of taking a hard stance against unions. Most recently, Amazon used various anti-union tactics to fight off a union drive in Alabama. This article will look at the specific tactics Amazon used in this fight and how they effectively thwarted the unionisation effort.

Amazon’s Use of Third-party Consultants

Amazon has long resisted unionisation of its warehouse employees and has employed various controversial tactics to achieve this goal. One tactic that Amazon has employed is third-party consultants to dissuade workers from unionising. Amazon outsources the management of its warehouses and typically employs many agency recruiters and temp workers who can be more vulnerable to pressure from third-party consultants hired by the company to influence their decisions.

This tactic is known as “outsourcing anti-unionism” and allows Amazon to distance itself from anti-union practices while benefiting from them. It works in two ways: by training managers on recognizing signs of organising among warehouse employees and discouraging workers from joining a union, and by hiring external consultants with no connection to Amazon who are often more aggressive in their approach than trained managers might be.

By outsourcing anti-unionism, Amazon also attempts to avoid potential legal risks that would arise by using direct in-house methods for preventing unionisation, such as intimidating workers or offering them undeserved promotions or raises solely for their lack of interest in joining a union effort.

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This practice raises serious concerns about worker rights. In addition, outside contractors may be incentivized financially or otherwise without oversight or recourse for labour representatives or the general public if unlawful acts harm worker interests.

Amazon’s Use of Anti-union Literature

Amazon has long been known for its aggressive anti-union tactics, from producing anti-union literature to actively campaigning against unionisation efforts. In the past, the company has distributed leaflets and held meetings designed to persuade Amazon employees to oppose unionisation and target employee social media accounts during union campaigns.

The company’s anti-union literature typically emphasises their strong benefits offered to employees and allegations of lost wages or benefits due to joining a union. Some of the literature goes so far as to suggest that if a worker votes in favour of joining a union then they may face disciplinary action such as suspension or termination.

Another major tactic is publicly opposing labour rights organisations such as Amazon Employees for Equity (AEE), who advocate on behalf of Amazon workers worldwide. The company’s opposition includes:

  • Attacking its organisers on social media.
  • Producing counter-campaigns to spread derogatory information about AEE.
  • Creating false social media campaigns that spread negative information about AEE’s efforts.

Amazon has also acted aggressively against unions by threatening legal action when workers organise protests or strikes over unfair labour practices. The company has even gone so far as to file lawsuits against union organisers to silence them and squash any potential organising activities.

Amazon’s Use of Surveillance and Intimidation

Amazon has become known for its anti-union stance and tactics used to prevent workers from organising. It has deployed various methods to discourage worker organising, including surveillance and intimidation.

In 2020, it emerged that Amazon had put in place an “observer” program in some warehouses known as Project Connelly, in which managers were assigned to monitor employees’ conversations with one another and keep a close eye on those who voiced interest in unionising. It was also reported that Amazon had compiled lists of workers who supported the unionisation effort.

Other tactics have included creating “action plans” to address worker complaints, sending pro-Amazon messages via text message during work hours, and bringing in consultants to train managers to dissuade employees from unionising. Some reports have also claimed that Amazon has threatened firings if its workers organise; however, they remain unconfirmed.

Amazon has also reportedly cracked down on outside activist groups operating inside its warehouses, such as Worker’s Voice USA, a grassroots organisation advocating for better working conditions at the company’s distribution centres. The organisation had documented workers’ grievances by taking photos inside warehouses.

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Still, it was told it was trespassing after reportedly receiving visits at their homes from Amazon security personnel and being served cease and desist notices from the company’s lawyers.

The Union Drive in Alabama

In early 2021, Amazon made international headlines when the company faced a union drive in Bessemer, Alabama. The Retail, Wholesale, and Department Store Union (RWDSU) in America had been organising for some months and was seeking to organise a majority of the 5,800 employees at the fulfilment centre. As the union drive gained traction, Amazon fought hard to block the formation of the union and preserve its status as a union-free environment. This article will explore Amazon’s history of fighting against unions and the strategies they have employed over the years.

Overview of The Union Drive in Alabama

Amazon has had a difficult history with organised labour. However, in the spring of 2021, Amazon faced one of its most significant union drives in its Birmingham, Alabama warehouse. The Retail, Wholesale conducted this effort, and the Department Store Union (RWDSU) representing Warehouse Workers for Justice (WWJ), whose stated mission is to improve working conditions for service workers. The unionisation effort in Birmingham came on the heels of multiple complaints from WWJ of inadequate pay and alleged unsafe working conditions in the Amazon facility.

At stake are wages and benefits for those particular workers and a potential win for RWDSU that would solidify their position as a force in Amazon’s southern warehouse locations. The union drive has been controversial and generated much media coverage at local and national levels and public protests outside and near the Amazon facility.

Amazon has responded to WWJ’s complaints by stating that it complies with state labour law requirements including providing fair wages, competitive benefits packages and safe workplace environments. However, it also stresses that it’s important to maintain an even playing field at all times so employees can make informed decisions about whether or not they choose to join a union on their terms without any coercion or unfair influence from management or outside forces.

Amazon’s Anti-union Tactics in Alabama

When efforts to unionise employees at an Amazon warehouse in Alabama gained traction, the company began using various tactics to discourage workers from unionising and prevent them from having their voices heard. Amazon hired the consulting firm, IRI Consultants, which specialises in anti-union practices, to lead its effort against the Union Drive.

The company has been accused of targeting worker advocates by subjecting key activists to increased surveillance and introducing communication barriers between employees. For example, Amazon tracked employee emails about organising efforts and ran regular meetings against unions in which supervisors spread misinformation about possible losses of benefits and wages should workers join a union. Some meetings reportedly began with a prayer organised by one supervisor that God might deliver his workers from the evils of unions.

In addition, some supervisors have been accused of ruining resumes for those who publicly expressed support for unionisation and providing threats or careless comments about potential repercussions should employees choose to join unions. Further, Amazon forced mandatory one-on-one meetings with pro-union workers for them not to access the warehouse premises, or face suspension or termination if they attended a Union rally or failed to sign mandated documents.

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Despite such tactics by the company, hundreds of ballots were cast decisively in favour of forming a union.

The Results of The Union Drive in Alabama

The union drive in Alabama was highly contentious and faced strong opposition from Amazon. In April 2021, Amazon announced its intentions to oppose unionisation efforts for their 8,000 fulfilment workers in Bessemer, Alabama — its largest single site. The labour activists and organisers worked tirelessly to get the word out about the potential benefits of unionisation. Amazon countered by sending out mailers and banners encouraging employees to vote “No” on the union drive.

On May 30th, 2021, 16526 ballots were counted in an election supervised by the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). After a fierce battle that drew national attention, the vote went against unions with 7556 votes cast against them and 8870 votes cast for them. The results of this election left labour unions with a narrow 1514-vote margin between rejecting and approving their bid for union representation among Amazon fulfilment workers in Bessemer.

This controversial result has been met with mixed reactions — some labour activists lamenting over what could have been a historic moment for American labour rights. In contrast, others see it as an opportunity to devise new strategies to ensure that working people have better protection from employers and secure fair wages at work. Nevertheless, no matter which side won the vote, it is apparent that this momentous event has brought awareness about how much power corporations such as Amazon wield over their employees’ lives both within and outside their workplaces.


The union drive in Alabama was an eye opener for Amazon as it highlighted their hostile stance against workers to unite. Amazon conducted a fierce anti-union campaign to dissuade workers from voting in favour of forming a union. Amazon’s tactics included threats to their workers, their attitudes towards union organisers, and their refusal to negotiate with worker representatives. In the end, the majority of workers voted against forming the union. Despite the union drive ultimately being unsuccessful, the results provide insight into how Amazon continues to fight against unionisation.

Summary of Amazon’s Anti-union Tactics

From its early days, Amazon has been known to take a strong stance against unionisation. The company has adopted several tactics to discourage workers from forming unions. These include surveillance, discrimination against union supporters, legal challenges to help block union votes, and dismissal/transfer of suspected organizers.

The leadership of Amazon has made multiple statements about the alleged risks that unions pose to their employees and the company’s performance. These arguments are largely unsupported by evidence: there is no evidence that unions harm profitability or worker satisfaction. Nevertheless, Amazon’s aggressive anti-union stance continues today, leading many union supporters and experts to conclude that Amazon is intent on preserving an anti-union corporate culture at all cost.

Furthermore, this aggressive anti-union strategy invariably reflects poorly on the company’s public image and casts suspicion regarding its workforce’s actual employment condition. The risk that unscrupulous companies like Amazon may skirt labour laws in favour of business interests – which may be composed at times in disregard to workers’ rights – should not be underestimated as this could potentially endanger people’s job security and employees’ liberty.

Impact of Amazon’s Anti-union Tactics on The Union Drive in Alabama

The impact of Amazon’s aggressive anti-union tactics was significant in the company’s victory in the 2021 union drive at its warehouses in Bessemer, Alabama. It reportedly spent over $10 million to crush the union effort, including $3.5 million on consulting services and an additional $7 million on online ads and other messaging touting its “pro-employee” workplace culture.

Amazon has traditionally been unsympathetic to workers’ concerns and has actively resisted unions by taking a hard line with employees who want to organise a union or express their grievances with management. The company uses various methods, including captive audience meetings, training videos outlining anti-union stances, outsourcing jobs to non-union companies, and monitoring employees who raise issues related to working conditions.

During the organising push at its Alabama warehouse, Amazon utilised anti-union consulting firms which employed legal strategies such as producing anti-union videos and painting organisers as “outsiders” while pushing its internal campaigns centred around creating an “empowering” work environment. Amazon also hired law firms specialising in corporate strategies for hiring union busting consultants who employ intimidating tactics such as threatening employee termination if they support the union’s activities or cause disruption at work. Additionally, Amazon deployed dozens of high-level executives to Bessemer during the lead up to certification vote; put out multiple emails warning employees about potential job loss related to voting for a union; took out anti-union advertisements in local newspapers; and required supervisors so closely monitor employee discussions about unions and take affidavits if they heard talk of working hours being cut due to unionisation

The result of these efforts was that only 738 out of more than 6500 eligible workers voted yes against forming a union representing warehouse workers despite a majority supporting it earlier . Again, this demonstrates how successful large corporations can capitalise on their deep pockets, allowing them to buy enough political influence to win their desired outcomes.

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